Since 1793, when the renowned British equestrian John Bill Rickets presented the first circus in America in a wooden amphitheatre in Philadelphia, it is estimated that there have been more than two thousand circuses in this country. The American circus did not have the upper-class distinction of the theatre, nor a distinctive British quality, which was a selling point to a newly independent people, but the growth and popularity of the American circus in the early years can also be attributed to a time when horsemanship and physical endurance were part of everyday living.
In the early days, circus performers operated their own shows, but as these shows became successful businessmen took them over. Farmers turned-menagerie-owners around Somers, New York, quickly realized that they could increase profits by combining the two most popular traveling attractions of the day, the menagerie and the circus. With the realization that fortunes could be made, many jumped on the bandwagon.
By the late 1870s, P. T. Barnum, who had semi-retired from a lifelong pursuit of spectacle, illusion, and marvels, realized the popularity and financial potential of the American circus. Together with his associates, William Coup and James A. Bailey, he elevated the circus to America’s favorite form of entertainment—the greatest, the grandest and the richest.
Many circuses stand out in the history of the circus, such as the Ringling Bros., Barnum & Bailey, Adam Forepaugh, Sells Bros., Cole Bros., and Hagenbeck-Wallace, but hundreds others have been lost in obscurity. Many circuses have disappeared over the years because of low attendance, retirements, weather, war, accidents, depressions, lack of money; those that weathered the storms besetting the circus were able to survive for years if not decades.
Through our research we have selected several hundred Circuses and made them accessible in our database. Below are listed, in alphabetical order are a representation of the circuses in America. Click a circus to view a brief description, or alternative names, related people, circus type and itineraries. Links will be provided to additional information within the database, including images and a historical timeline.
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Texas Bill's Wild West, 1904-1916
Texas Tom's Show, 1916-1916
Texas Tom's Show, 1914-1914
Thayer & Noyes' Circus, 1862-1868
The Hippodrome, 1860-1861
Thomas Cooke's Circus, 1836-1838
Thomas Stewart's Company (cm), 1808
Tiger Bill's Wild West, 1952-1952
Tiger Bill's Wild West, 1941-1941
Tiger Bill's Wild West, 1909-1936
Tiger Bill's Wild West & Col. G. W. Hall's Trained Animal Circus, 1910-1910
Tom Atkinson's Circus, 1933-1933
Tom Atkinson's Circus, 1916-1926
Tom King Circus, 1864-1864
Tompkins' Wild West, 1910-1917
Tourniaire & Whitby's Circus, 1858-1858
Trout & Foster's London Show, 1898-1899
Tufts Circus, 1837-1837
Turner, June & Co.'s New York Zoological Exhibit & Columbian Circus,
Turner's Columbian Circus, 1842-1842