Since 1793, when the renowned British equestrian John Bill Rickets presented the first circus in America in a wooden amphitheatre in Philadelphia, it is estimated that there have been more than two thousand circuses in this country. The American circus did not have the upper-class distinction of the theatre, nor a distinctive British quality, which was a selling point to a newly independent people, but the growth and popularity of the American circus in the early years can also be attributed to a time when horsemanship and physical endurance were part of everyday living.
In the early days, circus performers operated their own shows, but as these shows became successful businessmen took them over. Farmers turned-menagerie-owners around Somers, New York, quickly realized that they could increase profits by combining the two most popular traveling attractions of the day, the menagerie and the circus. With the realization that fortunes could be made, many jumped on the bandwagon.
By the late 1870s, P. T. Barnum, who had semi-retired from a lifelong pursuit of spectacle, illusion, and marvels, realized the popularity and financial potential of the American circus. Together with his associates, William Coup and James A. Bailey, he elevated the circus to America’s favorite form of entertainment—the greatest, the grandest and the richest.
Many circuses stand out in the history of the circus, such as the Ringling Bros., Barnum & Bailey, Adam Forepaugh, Sells Bros., Cole Bros., and Hagenbeck-Wallace, but hundreds others have been lost in obscurity. Many circuses have disappeared over the years because of low attendance, retirements, weather, war, accidents, depressions, lack of money; those that weathered the storms besetting the circus were able to survive for years if not decades.
Through our research we have selected several hundred Circuses and made them accessible in our database. Below are listed, in alphabetical order are a representation of the circuses in America. Click a circus to view a brief description, or alternative names, related people, circus type and itineraries. Links will be provided to additional information within the database, including images and a historical timeline.
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Dailey Bros. Circus, 1974-1975
Dailey Bros. Circus, 1940-1950
Daly Bros. Circus, 1927-1927
Daly Bros. Circus, 1923-1923
Dan Castello's Circus, 1888-1888
Dan Castello's Circus, 1890-1890
Dan Castello's Circus, 1861-1861
Dan Castello's Circus, 1864-1870
Dan Castello's Circus, 1876-1876
Dan Rice's Circus, 1936-1937
Dan Rice's Circus, 1848-1879
Dan Rice's Circus, 1945-1945
Dan Rice's Circus, 1917-1917
Davenport's Society Circus, 1935-1939
Davis and Leeds (cm), 1810
DeHaven & Nixon Circus,
DeMott & Ward's Circus, 1886-1886
Diano Bros. Circus, 1953-1953
Dickey's Circle D. Ranch Wild West, 1907-1910
Dockrill's Circus, 1885-1888
Dorward's Great London Show, 1909-1912
Douvillier & Barnet Circus, 1818-1818
Downie & Austin's Parlor Circus, 1886-1886
Downie Bros. Circus, 1985-1989
Downie Bros. Circus, 1926-1939
Downie Bros. Circus, 1994-1994
Downie & Gallagher Circus, 1891-1892
Downie & Wheeler's Circus, 1911-1913
Dr. Carver's Wild West, 1884-1885
Driesbach's Menagerie and Mabie & Co.'s Circus, 1853-1853
Dr. James L. Thayer's Circus, 1869-1886
D. R. Lines & Co. Menagerie, 1840-1844
Durang and DeGraff, 1800
D. W. Stone's Circus, 1878-1878
D. W. Stone's Circus, 1854-1854